Teksten van het ARS NOVA
concert / texts and translations of three isorhytmic compositions
Sanctus in eternis / Sanctus et ingenitus
Text and music are only found in one source, a famous codex with
repertory linked to the Court of Cyprus, probably compiled between 1413
and 1436. It belonged to the library of the Duke of Savoy and is now
preserved in Turin. Cyprus (i.e. Nicosia) was then one of Europe's
Cultural Capitals. It's king, Janus (Jean de Lusignan), was married to
Charlotte de Bourbon. The codex survived the terrible fire of 1904 (not
without damage and shrunk a little bit). It is shelf-marked "ms. J.II.9"
(Codex Taurensis) and consists of 159 folios containing over two hundred
polyphonic compositions both sacred and secular, all unique, all
anonymous, and many polyphonic masterpieces. This isorhytmic motet
is n° 35, fol(s) 075v-076.
The general theory about the
provenance of this manuscript is that Janus's daughter Anne took the
codex with her when she married Louis, Duke of Savoy (see image >). This
explains (but beware: the explanation is invented to explain, so it is
speculation) why the codex was in the Duke's Library (The Duke of Savoy
later transferred his seat from Chambéry to Turin). However, even in
this scenario she is not the only candidate. Her uncle, Hugh de
Lusignan, also resided in the Duchy of Savoy (bishop of Geneva). Based
on iconographical and paleographic evidence, it seems more plausible to
suggest that the manuscript was commissioned in Italy with a link to (or
for) the court of Cyprus. Connections between Northern Italy and Cyprus
abound (1). The presence of the coat
of arms of the Avogrado family in the manuscript provides a strong link
to this wealthy family from Brescia. Perhaps they commissioned it. The
manufacturing of the manuscript and the compositions in it are now often
linked to 'Jean Hanelle' who arrived as a petit vicaire in Cyprus
in the retinue of Charlotte de Bourbon in 1411 (King Janus' second
wife). Hanelle originated from Cambrai (hometown of Dufay). He was
chapel Master of the King of Cyprus in 1434-1436 and in Savoy during the
festivities of Anne's wedding (1434). At that time the Grant chapelle
of Savoy was placed under the direction of a certain Guillaume Dufay...
Producing beautifully ornamented Music manuscripts to show off was quite
common in those days.
Both texts are 'tropes'
(extending official texts by interpolation) on the liturgical chant of
the "Sanctus" .
The Latin text below differs
in some points from booklets provided with CD's. It is based on the
critical text edition of Clemens Blume & Guido M. Dreves ANALECTA
HYMNICA MEDII AEVII (vol. XLVII. TROPI GRADUALES. Tropen des Missals im
Mittelalter (Leipzig, 1905), p. 315-316.
Not only their interpunction
is very helpful to come to a beginning of an understanding (I do not
claim more) but also their transcription sometimes differs. Both poems
consist of 20 hexameters, with internal rhyme and (in Cantus I) some odd
final rhymes in the last part, which breaks the stanzas.
One pertinent mistake,
reproduced in many concerts and recordings (based on the official
edition of this manuscript in CMM): Cantus II, 4.2: Many musicians sing
(& textbooks print & translators do their best to make sense of it)
'Laus amor o Danielis
vox gloria reboat huius'. Quite a common transcription error
("ni" is read instead of "m" (recognize the 'OCR error?!). The original
seems to read 'amor odor'. It should be I think - following Blume/Dreves
- Laus amor oda melis
The translation is mine,
substantially differing from but still based on David Seward's (booklet
Music from the Court of King Janus of Nicosia. Huelgas Ensemble)
26-09-2013 Dick Wursten
(1) Source Karl Kügle, 'Glorious
Sounds for a Holy Warrior: New Light on Codex Turin J.II.9', Journal
of the American Musicological Society, Vol. 65, No. 3 (Fall 2012),
Cantus I (in ms.:
1. Sanctus in
eternis regnans, pater inque supernis
Summaque natura naturans
Maximaque ternis personis
Res sine factura, generans
sine qua genitura,
2. Sanctus et
aequalis genitus, qui cum patre talis
Abs defectura patris
exples omnia iura,
Qui personali distans patre
Et integrali constans es
3. Sanctus et una
quoque procedens res ab utroque,
Quae par gignenti similis
Par quoque nascenti,
amor et pia cura,
Munus et amborum, largitio,
4. Tu Sabaoth Dominus,
caelorum rex quoque dignus,
Tu terrenorum, tu
gloria plena polorum,
Vivis in excelsis,
[rex] qui sine tempore celsis.
5. Hosanna, dignos
tecum regnare benignos
Fac tibi cum sanctis regni
6. O benedicte, venis
Domini qui nomine plenis,
Subtrahe nos poenis,
hosanna, semper amoenis
salva nos, Christe, benigne.
Father, ruling forever and above;
Producing the essence
of nature itself,
the very best, you -
threepersonally - sift everything
without making, without any begetting,
Holy and equal Son, who with the father
without defect fulfills all your father's laws,
who, in persona distinct but with the same nature
agreeing art the same god.
Holy and One also who proceeds from both (= Spirit),
Equal to the Begetter, alike in pure substance.
And equal too to the Begotten, charity, love, pious care,
Reward and generous pledge of the love of both.
Thou , Lord Sabbaoth, also worthy King of heavens,
Thou full glory of the earth and of the sky,
dwellest on high, who forever is sublime.
Hosanna! Let the worthy and benign reign with you
together with the saints who rule on the throne of power,
O Blessed, who comes with a name full of the Lord.
Take away our punishments, Hosanna! Always worthy of
heavenly joys, save
us, o Christ, benignly.
In Cantus I, 3.3:
Blume/Dreves read 'cantas amor...'
and suggest constas. I prefer 'caritas'
(as does CMM)
Sanctus et ingenitus pater atque carens genitura,
et ac genitus, patri par gloria pura,
Sanctus par pneuma patri, genito quoque neuma.
pater, sanctum quoque pneuma character,
Sabaoth Dominus, redimens nos a nece, pignus,
aeternus, clemens, pius atque benignus.
4. Tu, cuius
caeli sunt pleni terraque, cuius
vox, gloria reboat huius
Celsis, Hosanna, mortis quoque comprime damna,
caelis foveas caelestes ante choreas.
benedicte, venis divino matre Maria
prole pia, damni
patre datus, ut nos a morte piares,
dares, pro nobis virgine natus,
et passus, crudeli verbere quassus,
in Domini pro nobis nomine
9. Qui Deus
es dictus et homo, pius et benedictus,
Qui cibus et
panis credentibus es tibi sanis,
in excelsis, Hosanna, redde beatis
celsis, salva nos, fons pietatis.
and unborn, Father without a parent; Father
Holy and born, Equal to the Father in pure glory; Son
Holy 'breath' equal To the Father and 'breathing' to the Son;
O Sign of the Son, o holy Father, also the holy Ghost,
Thou, Lord Sabbaoth, our pledge, redeem us from death,
Thou eternal God, merciful, faithful and beneficent.
Thou, of whom the heavens are full and the earth is filled of
praise, love and a hymn (the voice, the glory of this melody)
...in the high, Hosanna, also suppress the pains of death,
Cherish us in heaven in the presence of the heavenly choirs.
Blessed art Thou, who comes as a child to the pious mother Mary,
a divine name, detract us from the punishments of the damned.
Given to us by the Father, to expiate us from death,
to give us heaven, Thou, born for us from a virgin,
who has died and suffered, beaten with the cruel lash,
who comes for us in the name of the Triune Lord,
Thou, who art called God and man, faithful and blessed,
Thou who art food and bread to true believers,
Always in the highest Hosanna, give the blessed that they
may enjoy eternity on high, save us, source of piety.
In Cantus II, 6.2: Blume/Dreves suggest 'pia damni
nos', in CMM it is :
pia damnosis. The original seems to be
(according to Dreves) pia damnos.
Written on the occasion of
the installation of the new bishop of Padua Pietro Marcello
november, 16th, 1409. Marcello was born in Venice. Translations in
English and Dutch. Alternative readings from the transcription by
Susanne Clercx in 1960. In 1985 a new modern edition appeared:
Polyphonic Music of the Fourteenth Century vol XXIV: The works of
Johannes Ciconia, edited by Margaret Bent and Anne Hallmark, Volume
24, Éditions de l'Oiseau-Lyre, 1985. I was not able to consult it.
Petrum Marcello Venetum
Romano cretum sanguine,
Pastorem nostrum carmine*
Laudemus bene meritum.
Exultet urbs Euganeae
Adventu tanti presulis
Exultet plausu jubilis
Voves sonent ethereae.
Stirps leteris** Marcellina
Tali alumno decorata,
Cuius gradu sublimata
Illi tota te*** declina.
Plaudat Patavinus chorus
Laudes Iovi summo pangant
voce leta celum tangant
venit enim pastor verus.
Let us praise Peter
the Roman Marcelli (1)
our Pastor with a song
Exult, city of the Euganei (2)
at the coming of such a prelate,
Exult and applaud joyfully
let your vows resound to heaven.
Enjoy lineage of the Marcelli
adorned with such offspring:
because of his elevation
fully for him.
Applaud, Paduan choir,
Compose praises for the highest
with joyful voice
touch the sky
true Pastor is coming.
1. Marcelli = an old Venetian family, the reference to Rome
= semi-mythical proto-Italic ethnic group
O Petre, antistes inclite
Vere virtutis speculum
Quo nostrum inter seculum
Nos mina recto limite.
O pater amantissime,
Nos oves tuas dirige
Et aberrantes corrige
Judex cunctis justissime.
O cleri primas Padue
Nos tuos rite regula
Peccantes coge ferula
Sordida cuncta dilue.
Sint laudes regi gloriae
Qui nos te dignos red[i]dit;
Qui melon istud edidit
Adesto tuo Cyconie.
O Peter, famous bishop,
truly, mirror of virtue
with which (i.e. virtue) during our age,
lead us on the right path.
O most loving father,
direct us, your sheep,
and correct those who err,
judge of all, most just.
O primate of the Paduan clergy
rule duly over us, who are yours,
with your staff compell the sinners,
wash us from all that is sordid.
Honour be the King of glory
who made us worthy of you;
and to the writer of this song
give heed, your Ciconia.
Laat ons Pietro Marcello van Venetië,
uit Romeins bloed gesproten,
onze Herder, onze Pastor
prijzen met een welverdiend lied.
Jubel stad der Euganei
om de komst van deze prelaat.
Jubel, klap in de handen, zing
Verheug u, geslacht van Marcello,
met zulk een telg getooid.
Buig bij zijn troonsbestijging
eerbiedig voor hem neer.
Applaus ! koor van Padua,
lofzingt voor de hoogste god
laat uw blijde stem ten hemel rijzen
want hij komt, de ware herder.
O Pietro, vermaarde bisschop,
echt, de spiegel der deugd,
waarmee in dit tijdsgewricht:
u ons moet leiden op het rechte pad.
O allerliefhebbendste vader,
leid ons, uw schapen
corrigeer hen die dwalen
O primaat der clerus van Padua,
bestuur ons, de uwen, zoals het
bedwing zondaars met uw staf,
was alle smetten van ons af
Eer aan de koning der glorie,
Hij maakte ons u waardig.
En op hem die dit liedje schreef
sla welwillend acht: ’t is uw
Written on the occasion of
the coronation of Gabrieli Condulmieri (from Venice) as pope Eugenius
IV, 1431, 11 March. At least that is the 'received opinion'.
However, especially the text
of the Motetus is hardly thinkable on that occasion. It is so...
militant, openly referring to bad times. At least as far as we can
understand this text. The first stanza 1 and stanzas 4 and 5 of the
Motetus are hardly translatable, or if translated remain cryptical.
So, one is inclined to search for a different setting (context) which
might help to illuminate these parts of the text.
There is a daring
hypothesis: The reference to a 'shield' (stanza 4) given to the pope
should be understood as a reference to an episode a few years after his
coronation, when pope Eugenius hastily had to leave Rome in a boat,
while revolting roman citizens threw stones at him. (It is the time of
the Western Schism and Rome becomes the bulwark of the conciliarists
(Council of Basle). Venice and Florence are Rome's enemies and they
rescue the pope. During this exile (1434-1443) he lived in Florence (at
that time an enemy of Rome). If Ecclesiae militantis does date
from this period and refers to it (remember: this is private music!)
then Du Fay tries to transform the Pope's retreat into an act of
heroism. If read from this perspective both the beginning in which so
emphatically the election by the conclave and its legitimacy is
mentioned and the way the Pope's personal virtues of asceticism and
purity are highlighted become telling. Even the first lines might shift
in meaning: No oblique reference to ecclesia militans / triumphans
but a call on Rome “the militant and triumphant church's seat” to
offer praise to the true pope. The lamento (contratenor)
also gets a proper meaning: This specific war is lamented...
The text tradition used by musicians is quite confused. On the internet
a version dominates which is quite faulty. The one presented below seems
more in order. I compared it - with my humble paleographic skills - to
the manuscript version, consultable
Trentini 87-93, folios 85v-86r + 95v-96r) and the official edition
of Dufay's Opera Omnia in the CMM.
I transcribed the medieval
Latin to make it more familiar (the "ae" written as "e" in medieval
Latin is a constant source of confusion (so, in Motetus 1,4 there is no
horse 'equum', but simply the adjective 'aequum'). Most pertinent
differences I printed in blue. I don't
claim perfection in translation. Some parts I translated but I don't
grasp the meaning. I tried not to interfere too much, even when I didn't
get it. Often one has to rephrase the sentence completely in order to
get something which sounds like English. In Latin the placement of the
words in a sentence is almost entirely free. It is the gender,
conjugation, declination etc. which links words.
Roma sedes triumphantis
patri sursum sidera
tamen* cleri resonantis
promat voce libera.
Gabrielem quem vocavit
dum paternum crimen lavit
bonum genus quod notavit
Quod consulta contio
qua nam sancta ratio
ut sola devotio
regnet in palatio
quod Deus beavit.
Certe Deus voluit
et in hoc complacuit
sed daemon indoluit
quod peccatum defuit
tantae rerum moli.
Dulcis pater populi
qui dulcorem poculi
pone lento consuli
rem gregis pauperculi
ne nescius erres.
Pater haerens filio
det prece solemni
in vita perenni.
* carmen is suggested as emendation in
** or consilio ?
Rome, seat of the
Church, which is triumphant
above the stars, bring forth
when the clerics sing
for the Father
at least* the praise
of the Pope
with a liberated
Who was called Gabriel
when cleansed of original sin
was renamed Eugenius,
'well-born' as the
Papal election declared.
Which, the prudent assembly
- for she was led by holy reason -
that only devotion
should reign in the palace
that God had blessed.
Certainly it was God's will
And in this he has gratified
The offspring of the Venetians;
But the Devil did grieve
because sin had not part
in this important matter.
Sweet father of the people,
You who abhorr the sweet
intoxication of the cup (= drinking)
Entrust to a mild councillor
the case of your poor flock,
that you may not err unknowingly.
May the Father united with the Son
with the Spirit alike
give through solemn prayer
joy to Eugenius,
in the eternal life
once his dominion completed.
* with carmen: a song that praises
Nam torpens inertia
longa quaerens otia
sed juris peritia
cum tota justitia
sunt ejus ingenium
Hinc est testimonium
pacem quaerit ommium
daemonis et carnium
pompam vincit saeculi.
Quam color ipse poli
dic scutum, quod attuli
tibi, pater optime
instar tui speculi
moram longi temporis
nescio quo ferrime
ad fulmentum corporis.
Una tibi trinitas
vera Deus unitas
det coeli fulgorem
quem linea bonitas
secernit in morem.
* the ms. says cleri
- but ?
** MS: daemonium. I prefer to correct the
reading: The triple dominion is traditionally linked to the
papacy (cf. Tiara).
through the decision of the saints
a fair and just group of clerics
who look into their own heart,
enters the hall (of the palace)
(once the place) of mockery
For languid indolence
That seeks longlasting leisure
is unknown to Eugenius;
But the juridical expertise
full of justice,
is his natural dispostion.
Here is the proof:
He seeks peace for everyone,
hates crime and
and the triple dominion
overcomes the pomp of the devil,
the flesh and the world.
Say how the color of the sky
gives the shield I brought you,
most kind father,
that sacred (aspect), that your eyes
like through a mirror
discern most clearly.
Alas, most illustrious one
we bemoan, most tender one,
that it took so long.
we were led very harsly,
I don't know how, fiercely
to corporeal support.
May the Trinity in One,
God, the true Unity,
Grant you the splendor of heaven
who by linen-white goodness,
and silverlike chastity,
is set apart in morals.
Bella canunt gentes, querimur,
pater optime, tempus:
Expediet multos, si cupis, una dies.
Nummus et hora fluunt
magnumque iter orbis agendum
Nec suus in toto noscitur orbe Deus.
The people sing of war, and we
Most kind father, our times:
One day, if you wish, things will go
well for many.
Money and time flow away,
And the world still has a long way to
Yet its God is not known in all parts
of the globe.
De volken bezingen de oorlog, maar wij
beklagen, goede vader, de tijd.
Geld en tijd vloeien heen
en er is nog een lange weg te gaan
voor een wereld, die wereldwijd
haar eigen God niet kent.
The cantus firmi:
Domini" (Antiphone of the Vespers for Saturday preceding the first
Sunday of Advent ad Magnificat)
(= God is my strength) (Antiphone of the Matins of Sundays in Advent &
Vespers of the Annunciation ad Magnificat)